The following posts summarize the article ‘Science Born of Faith: A History’ which can be found on the Theology page of this website.
the medieval period
The article starts with the founding of universities in the 12th century and the discussions between Orthodox Christian, Islamic, Jewish and Latin philosophers concerning the nature of reality. Learning was based on the rediscovery of Greek philosophy preserved by Byzantine Orthodox Christian scholars from where it passed to the Islamic world and then the Latin world of Catholic Christianity.
Historical movements led towards the Protestant Reformation and Catholic counter-reformation of the 16th century.
There had been proper attempts at scientific reflection and scientific observation during the medieval period of the 13th and 14th centuries, but these had not flourished within the world of medieval symbolism.
The well-known thesis that the Protestant Reformation was the precondition for the development of modern science is borne out. The new society provided an opening for new ideas. The Christian search for truth of devout Bible-reading Protestants led to the first expressions of modern science as a search for true knowledge of the created world.