Is out now as an eBook. You can find the kindle edition in the Kindle Store for 77p or $1
The universe is initiated with the creation of matter. This is different to the idea of matter condensing out of energy in the Big Bang model. In the Multi-Bang matter is flung out from multiple centres of expansion and the early universe is flooded with light. The opening words of Genesis speak of this light. Matter in motion forms revolving galaxies within which stars are born. This process does not involve ‘dark matter’, but only the matter actually observed in the universe. Part II of Steps describes the cosmic evolution of created matter.
In the Theory of Nanocreation and Entropic Evolution the fundamental stable elements were created as the components of life. Microscopic life is found on a vast scale. The unstable radioactive elements have been produced by natural processes and these evolved elements decay back into stable elements.
In the scenario offered by Part II of Steps, life is created by God and its components are the 16 fundamental elements found at the top of the Periodic Table. There are also three elements that act as catalysts in the formation of stars. Thus, the stuff of life, the elements of organic molecules, were not randomly fortuitously created in stars, but designed expressly for the functions of life and created within cells.
The description of the cosmos given in Part II is about the observed universe and not about speculations on unobserved things such as hypothetical other universes. The description of subatomic particles in Chapter 14 is based on the facts about known particles, and not about the hypothetical particle zoo.
I set out to write about the science of cosmology and physics with my feet firmly planted on the ground avoiding anything fanciful and trendy. But when I saw the unfurling of the early universe in my mind’s eye, I was stunned by the beauty and simplicity of what I saw.
Is out now as an eBook. You can find the kindle edition in the Kindle Store for 77p or $1
This book offers Creationist belief and a new theory of evolution based on the facts of modern science.
Facts from biology and paleontology all point to the conclusion that life has been complex from its origin. None the less, life has adapted to new conditions and become more diverse over time.
In Steps Part I new concepts on the following topics are discussed:
– Genetics: genes that make humans similar to apes and genes that make humans uniquely human – Evolution that occurs by genetic switching-off. An ‘advantageous gene’ may be a blank, unexpressed gene. – Highly evolved forms of life are often reduced forms. There are hundreds of examples of this e.g. moles have no eye balls, but they do have eye sockets which gives them selective advantage to life underground. – The Natural Selection of modified traits and the limits to Natural Selection: Charles Darwin’s definitions of this concept. – A new classification system of bacteria, single cell organisms, plants and animals: 120 basic kinds or classes of life. – The fossil record of succeeding types of life and the ecosystems they belonged to. – Life has never been created in a test-tube: the reasons why. – Life has produced the conditions for life on planet Earth: anaerobic life produced water and continues to do so.
To summarize my thoughts on human origins and human evolution, humans started out human. They may have been primitive – in our eyes – but they were completely what they were, and not half-way-there to what they should be.
All creatures evolve, and this produces diversity within a type of thing. For all creatures become adapted to climate and their particular environment.
The human creature is no different in many respects from other creatures. What is different is that human evolution occurs as a response to human culture, and human culture is a product of the human mind.
Humans show considerable diversity geographically due to adaptation to climate, but also there is chronological diversity as humans were adapted to different cultures through prehistory, and prehistoric life was tough.
Differences in bone structure, behaviour and culture do not mean that prehistoric members of the genus Homo were not human. Our views on who we are and who they were dehumanized them! A lot of this is based on ignorance.
The half-evolved ape-man has about as much reality as a cartoon strip about the Flintstones.
Our body tissues and basic body plan are over 98% genetically identical to those of apes. We are part of the one ‘tree of life.’
The few genes – maybe a 1000 genes that are specific only to humans, have, I believe been shared by all members of the genus Homo for over 3 million years; that is to say, since the origin of the human line.
Human evolution, like the evolution of other creatures, has occurred through genetic switching off. This is explained in The Steps of Creation Part I. This is based on documented genetic evidence regarding mutations.
A person has a soul. No person has ever had half a soul. You either are one and have one, or don’t have one. This is what makes possible the ability to look into your own mind and know yourself.
This is the basis to being fully human while having tissues akin to those of other animals. We and all members of the genus Homo have similarities to apes while being very fundamentally different from apes from our origin.
Each of God’s creations was whole, complete and perfect. Mankind was one of these creations.
He created them male and female, with the power of language, each possessing a soul.
God has never created a half-creature. He did not create a ‘hominid’ or upright walking, human-looking, non-human nor cause it to evolve from apes.
The historical Adam could be located 6000 years ago in the Neolithic, or come from prehistory 750 000 years ago with Homo heidelbergensis, or be located at the origin of the genus Homo some 2-3 million years ago.
Primitive members of the genus Homo; Homo habilis, the tool-maker or Homo ignis (Homo erectus), the fire-maker may have looked slightly different to ourselves and have a low hair-line on the forehead, but these were full human beings. Even the oldest fossils of all belonging to the human line, when reconstructed with human features rather than ape features, come out looking human.
The status of early, primitive members of the human line, in the eyes of the Creator, was that of having the original perfection and dignity of Adam and Eve, although we know they fell.
A large crowd followed and pressed around him. And a woman was there who had been subject to bleeding for twelve years. [In her desperation] she came up behind him in the crowd and touched his cloak, because she thought, ‘If I just touch his clothes, I will be healed.’ Immediately her bleeding stopped and she felt in her body that she was freed from her suffering.
At once Jesus realized that power had gone out from him. He turned around in the crowd and asked, “Who touched my clothes?” [the disciples said “everyone is touching you”, but Jesus kept looking around to see who had done it. Then fearfully the woman came forward to say it was her.] He said to her, “Daughter, your faith has healed you. Go in peace and be freed from your suffering.”
Gospel of Mark 5:25-34
When the woman touches Jesus’ prayer shawl, the fringe of his garment, power that heals and restores health is felt by the receiver and known to the Giver. This power produces tangible effects.
The power of creation and the power of healing are One. Each specific act of creation came through the same power as each specific act of restoring health. The power of God can reconfigure matter to set it up or to set it right.
Thomas Aquinas and those who followed him before the Reformation located God in metaphysics as Creator and in physics as Creator. It was one meaningful whole. After the Reformation and with the rise of the Mechanical Philosophy investigation into the working of things changed the focus, but in fact, made the light of faith shine stronger as the intricacies of nature revealed the mind of God.
Evolution swept away meaning traditionally attributed by Theists to the world around them – nature ceased to be seen as the handiwork of God and became the realm of blind forces.
(NB Evolution is, in fact, various concepts – which I discuss elsewhere. There are both valid and invalid views of evolution).
Faith set the ball rolling that would give rise to modern science, but now modern science, set free from church, has set itself up to extinguish faith. It is now being positioned as the object of faith. Christians certainly have a future in science, but the path is not an easy one under the present secular conditions.
Breaking the link to God in the genesis of what exists, is to break free from logic itself. Science cut from the tethers of the Word now floats free on the sea of uncertainty, the indeterminate and ill-defined.
True science springs from faith and always has done. Today there is a large amount of error. However, it is my belief that despite everything and often outright opposition, all paths eventually return to God Creator of both the matter of the universe and the life within it.
Scientific theory does indeed often appear to spring from an internal dialogue of science with faith on the part of the thinker. I think my thesis that science is born of faith is upheld. Debate is also certainly necessary as the ‘sounding board’ to ideas.
It is also the case that people who once had a faith can turn against it and take up science instead of faith. Atheism needs Theism as the thing to fight against – kicking a void would not be a sane thing to do. Theism must be something, and not nothing if you can oppose it.
Many Christians work in science today. They have adopted Methodological Naturalism to get by. This means that all the methods used by science are purely material, but the personal meaning attributed to science as an activity is theistic – Christians in science often feel they have a God-given vocation.
There are no more prefaces to scientific books praising the wisdom of the Creator; science done to the glory of God in the past, is now done to the triumph of secularism.
Much of science today entails analysis of data to establish facts, but I do feel that Christians are being swept along with scientific theories which underneath have an Atheist agenda. This puts Christians in survival mode.
In the second half of the 19th century biology became increasingly dominated by the Philosophy of Naturalism promoted by X-Club members led by T. H. Huxley. Their project was successful in secularizing science.
In the 20th century the church in crisis took the line of compromise with secularism – liberal Anglicans took on evolution as a form of continuous creation such that evolution became God’s method of creation.
By the 1950s Marxist biologists brought the additional idea that natural selection could bring life from non-life. No known law of chemistry could explain this. At this point natural selection was no longer a mechanism for modifying existing life forms and producing new species, but a force bringing life itself into existence.
Many Catholic and Anglican Christians then went for the Cosmic Christ where the Christ is the god of the evolutionary force.
Evangelical Christians opposed the whole ‘science of evolution’ project in the 1960s onwards with Biblical Creationism based on a literal reading of Genesis. Some Creationists later became followers of Intelligent Design.
Meanwhile other Christians who were Theistic Evolutionists found acceptance in the secular scientific community. They made contributions to NeoDarwinism and the New Synthesis which is Darwinian natural selection combined with the science of genetics, and studies in population genetics.
Biblical Creationists became ‘fair game’ for any Atheists promoting themselves in science. Theistic Evolutionists then came under attack themselves from militant Atheists trying to prove the total irrelevance of God with the idea that science is the only source of truth.
The present day is probably seen in too much detail to be able to draw any real conclusions out of it. It’s quite hard to end a history in the present day – we only know what happened by what came next – but none of us know what is coming next. Thus, my history of science and faith is left hanging – suspended between heaven and hell, awaiting salvation of some sort.
From the mid-19th century the history of physics and astronomy takes one line, while the history of biology and earth sciences takes another line.
The Philosophy of Materialism and its universe of eternal matter was defeated first by the science of thermodynamics with its concept of entropy which shows that the universe had a beginning. Secondly, the Philosophy of Materialism was defeated in the 20th century with the Theory of General Relativity showing that the universe is expanding – which also shows that it had a beginning.
Materialism was banished from Western science, but upheld in Soviet Union science. Materialism then returned to physics under the guise of the Multiverse – an infinite series of universes popping up simultaneously or consecutively. This is pure philosophy, not evidence-based science. It’s sister philosophy is the Anthropic Principle that says we are here because we just happen to live in the universe that contains life – by definition – if we didn’t we wouldn’t be here discussing it.